top of page
bladder and bones.jpg

The Bladder Cancer Gender and Sex Program

Welcome to the Bladder Cancer Gender and Sex Program! Gender and sex have been unduly neglected in many areas of research, including bladder cancer. While it is a longstanding and worldwide clinical observation that males have higher bladder cancer incidence than females across geographical, economical, and racial strata, its biological etiology remains regrettably elusive. The goal of this research center is to: (1) generate interest and educate on this topic and (2) serve as a platform for multidisciplinary discussion and collaboration.


Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the top non-reproductive cancers harboring sex differences: males are 3-5 times more likely to experience BC than females. Although environmental and behavioral variables can alter risk, these factors cannot fully explain why males and females differ in incidence rates and tumor biology—sex as a biological variable serves as the missing piece to the puzzle.

bottom of page